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Chimalpahin's Conquest. Susan Schroeder. Crown, Covenant and Cromwell. Stuart Reid. The Inca Princesses. The Civil War in Yorkshire. David Cooke. Maurice Collis. The Supernatural in Tudor and Stuart England. Darren Oldridge. The Adventures of Pizarro. George Towle. Romance of History, Mexico Margaret Duncan Coxhead. Festival Culture in the World of the Spanish Habsburgs. Fernando Checa Cremades. Uroscopy in Early Modern Europe.

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Michael Stolberg. Harry Fulsom. Lisa H. John Newsome Crossley. Europeans in West Africa, John William Blake. Clements R. Hero or Tyrant? Robert J. David Beers Quinn. Walter de Gray Birch. Washington Irving. The East and West Indian Mirror. John A. Oliver Cromwell. Patrick Little. The Philippine Islands, The World of Plants in Renaissance Tuscany. Cristina Bellorini.


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East Africa. Malyn Newitt. Amy Ellison. Mansel Longworth Dames. Hakluyt Society, Second Series Book 4. How to write a great review. The review must be at least 50 characters long. The title should be at least 4 characters long. Your display name should be at least 2 characters long. At Kobo, we try to ensure that published reviews do not contain rude or profane language, spoilers, or any of our reviewer's personal information.

You submitted the following rating and review. We'll publish them on our site once we've reviewed them. Continue shopping. Item s unavailable for purchase. One important reason was the need for alternatives to the expensive eastern trade routes that followed the Silk Road. Those routes were dominated first by the republics of Venice and Genoa , and then by the Ottoman Empire after the conquest of Constantinople in The Ottomans barred European access. For decades the Spanish Netherlands ports produced more revenue than the colonies since all goods brought from Spain, Mediterranean possessions, and the colonies were sold directly there to neighbouring European countries: wheat, olive oil, wine, silver, spice, wool and silk were big businesses.

The gold brought home from Guinea stimulated the commercial energy of the Portuguese, and its European neighbours, especially Spain. Apart from their religious and scientific aspects, these voyages of discovery were highly profitable. They had benefited from Guinea's connections with neighbouring Iberians and north African Muslim states. Due to these connections, mathematicians and experts in naval technology appeared in Portugal. Portuguese and foreign experts made several breakthroughs in the fields of mathematics, cartography and naval technology.

Portuguese explored the Atlantic, Indian and Pacific oceans before the Iberian Union period — Although well received, he was forbidden to depart. In , Vasco da Gama reached India. The Portuguese sailors sailed eastward to such places as Taiwan, Japan, and the island of Timor. Several writers have also suggested the Portuguese were the first Europeans to discover Australia and New Zealand.

Attracting settlers proved difficult; however, the Jewish settlement was a success and their descendants settled many parts of Brazil. The Portuguese following the maritime trade routes of Muslims and Chinese traders, sailed the Indian Ocean. Da Gama in marked the beginning of Portuguese influence in Indian Ocean. It initially became part of the Portuguese province of Arabia and Ethiopia and was administered by a governor general. Around , Zanzibar became part of the western division of the Portuguese empire and was administered from Mozambique.

The first English ship to visit Unguja, the Edward Bonaventure in , found that there was no Portuguese fort or garrison. The extent of their occupation was a trade depot where produce was purchased and collected for shipment to Mozambique. Portuguese were established supporting one Christian local dynasty ruling suitor. By Afonso I sent various of his children and nobles to Europe to study, including his son Henrique Kinu a Mvemba , who was elevated to the status of bishop in The aggregate of Portugal's colonial holdings in India were Portuguese India.

In a series of military conflicts, political manoeuvres and conquests, the Portuguese extended their control over the Sinhalese kingdoms , including Jaffna , [54] Raigama , Sitawaka , and Kotte , [55] but the aim of unifying the entire island under Portuguese control failed. The invasion was a disaster for the Portuguese, with their entire army wiped out by Kandyan guerrilla warfare.

More envoys were sent in to Ethiopia, after Socotra was taken by the Portuguese. As a result of this mission, and facing Muslim expansion, regent queen Eleni of Ethiopia sent ambassador Mateus to king Manuel I of Portugal and to the Pope, in search of a coalition. In , the Portuguese under Francisco de Almeida won a critical victory in the battle of Diu against a joint Mamluk and Arab fleet sent to counteract their presence in the Arabian Sea.

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The retreat of the Mamluks and Arabs enabled the Portuguese to implement their strategy of controlling the Indian Ocean. Afonso de Albuquerque set sail in April from Goa to Malacca with a force of 1, men and seventeen or eighteen ships. That same year, the Portuguese, desiring a commercial alliance, sent an ambassador, Duarte Fernandes , to the kingdom of Ayudhya , where he was well received by king Ramathibodi II. Earlier expeditions by Diogo Dias and Afonso de Albuquerque had explored that part of the Indian Ocean, and discovered several islands new to Europeans.

Mascarenhas served as Captain-Major of the Portuguese colony of Malacca from to , and as viceroy of Goa, capital of the Portuguese possessions in Asia, from until his death in He was succeeded by Francisco Barreto , who served with the title of "governor-general". To enforce a trade monopoly, Muscat , and Hormuz in the Persian Gulf , were seized by Afonso de Albuquerque in , and in and , respectively. He also entered into diplomatic relations with Persia.

In while trying to conquer Aden , an expedition led by Albuquerque cruised the Red Sea inside the Bab al-Mandab , and sheltered at Kamaran island. In , the Portuguese were the first Europeans to reach the city of Guangzhou by the sea, and they settled on its port for a commercial monopoly of trade with other nations.

They were later expelled from their settlements, but they were allowed the use of Macau , which was also occupied in , and to be appointed in as the base for doing business with Guangzhou. The quasi-monopoly on foreign trade in the region would be maintained by the Portuguese until the early seventeenth century, when the Spanish and Dutch arrived.

The Portuguese presence disrupted and reorganised the Southeast Asian trade, and in eastern Indonesia they introduced Christianity. There he established ties with the local ruler who was impressed with his martial skills. The rulers of the competing island states of Ternate and Tidore also sought Portuguese assistance and the newcomers were welcomed in the area as buyers of supplies and spices during a lull in the regional trade due to the temporary disruption of Javanese and Malay sailings to the area following the conflict in Malacca.

The spice trade soon revived but the Portuguese would not be able to fully monopolize nor disrupt this trade. Such an outpost far from Europe generally only attracted the most desperate and avaricious, and as such the feeble attempts at Christianization only strained relations with Ternate's Muslim ruler. After being declared innocent of the charges against him he was sent back to reassume his throne, but died en route at Malacca in Following the murder of Sultan Hairun at the hands of the Europeans, the Ternateans expelled the hated foreigners in after a five-year siege.

The Portuguese first landed in Ambon in , but it only became the new centre for their activities in Maluku following the expulsion from Ternate. European power in the region was weak and Ternate became an expanding, fiercely Islamic and anti-European state under the rule of Sultan Baab Ullah r.

Altogether, the Portuguese never had the resources or manpower to control the local trade in spices, and failed in attempts to establish their authority over the crucial Banda Islands, the nearby centre of most nutmeg and mace production. Following Portuguese missionary work, there have been large Christian communities in eastern Indonesia particularly among the Ambonese. Mauritius was visited by the Portuguese between by Diogo Fernandes Pereira and The Portuguese took no interest in the isolated Mascarene islands. Their main African base was in Mozambique , and therefore the Portuguese navigators preferred to use the Mozambique Channel to go to India.

The Comoros at the north proved to be a more practical port of call. Based on the Treaty of Tordesillas , Manuel I claimed territorial rights in the area visited by John Cabot in and Accompanied by colonists from mainland Portugal and the Azores, he explored Newfoundland and Nova Scotia possibly reaching the Bay of Fundy on the Minas Basin [72] , and established a fishing colony on Cape Breton Island , that would last some years or until at least s, based on contemporary accounts.

The first settlement was founded in Some European countries, especially France, were also sending excursions to Brazil to extract brazilwood. Worried about the foreign incursions and hoping to find mineral riches, the Portuguese crown decided to send large missions to take possession of the land and combat the French. As time passed, the Portuguese created the Viceroyalty of Brazil. The Portuguese assimilated some of the native tribes [78] while others were enslaved or exterminated in long wars or by European diseases to which they had no immunity.

The Dutch sacked Bahia in , and temporarily captured the capital Salvador.

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In the s and s, the Dutch West India Company established many trade posts or colonies. The Spanish silver fleet, which carried silver from Spanish colonies to Spain, were seized by Piet Heyn in In Suriname and Guyana were established. He landed at Recife , the port of Pernambuco and the chief stronghold of the Dutch, in January In most of the inhabitants of the town Pernambuco Recife , in the future Dutch colony of Brazil were Sephardic Jews who had been banned by the Portuguese Inquisition to this town at the other side of the Atlantic Ocean.

As some years afterward the Dutch in Brazil appealed to Holland for craftsmen of all kinds, many Jews went to Brazil; about Jews left Amsterdam in , accompanied by two distinguished scholars — Isaac Aboab da Fonseca and Moses Raphael de Aguilar. In the struggle between Holland and Portugal for the possession of Brazil the Dutch were supported by the Jews.

From to , the Dutch set up more permanently in the Nordeste and controlled a long stretch of the coast most accessible to Europe, without, however, penetrating the interior. But the colonists of the Dutch West India Company in Brazil were in a constant state of siege, in spite of the presence in Recife of John Maurice of Nassau as governor. After several years of open warfare, the Dutch formally withdrew in Portuguese sent military expeditions to the Amazon Rainforest and conquered British and Dutch strongholds, [86] founding villages and forts from Before the Iberian Union period — , Spain tried to prevent Portuguese expansion into Brazil with the Treaty of Tordesillas.

This was disputed in vain, and in Spain confirmed Portuguese sovereignty. The defeat of Abu Abdallah and the death of Portugal's king led to the end of the Portuguese Aviz dynasty and later to the integration of Portugal and its empire at the Iberian Union for 60 years under Sebastian's uncle Philip II of Spain. Philip was married to his relative Mary I cousin of his father, due to this, Philip was King of England and Ireland [89] in a dynastic union with Spain. The English-Spanish wars of — were clashes not only in English and Spanish ports or on the sea between them but also in and around the present-day territories of Florida, Puerto Rico, the Dominican Republic, Ecuador, and Panama.

Even though the Portuguese were unable to capture the entire island of Ceylon, they were able to control its coastal regions for a considerable time. From to mostly, the Bandeirantes in Brazil focused on slave hunting, then from to they focused on mineral wealth. Through these expeditions and the Dutch—Portuguese War , Colonial Brazil expanded from the small limits of the Tordesilhas Line to roughly the same borders as current Brazil.

In the 17th century, taking advantage of this period of Portuguese weakness, the Dutch occupied many Portuguese territories in Brazil. He landed at Recife, the port of Pernambuco, in January The Dutch intrusion into Brazil was long lasting and troublesome to Portugal. The large area of Bahia and its city, the strategically important Salvador, was recovered quickly by an Iberian military expedition in After the dissolution of the Iberian Union in , Portugal re-established authority over its lost territories including remaining Dutch controlled areas.

The other smaller, less developed areas were recovered in stages and relieved of Dutch piracy in the next two decades by local resistance and Portuguese expeditions. Spanish Formosa was established in Taiwan, first by Portugal in and later renamed and repositioned by Spain in Keelung. It became a natural defence site for the Iberian Union. The colony was designed to protect Spanish and Portuguese trade from interference by the Dutch base in the south of Taiwan.

The Spanish colony was short-lived due to the unwillingness of Spanish colonial authorities in Manila to defend it. While technological superiority and cultural factors played an important role in the victories of the conquistadors in the Americas, their conquest was greatly facilitated by old world diseases: smallpox , chicken pox , diphtheria , typhus , influenza , measles , malaria and yellow fever. The diseases were carried to distant tribes and villages.

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This typical path of disease transmission moved much faster than the conquistadors, so that as they advanced, resistance weakened. The American natives lacked immunity to these infections. When Francisco Coronado and the Spaniards first explored the Rio Grande Valley in , in modern New Mexico, some of the chieftains complained of new diseases that affected their tribes.

Cabeza de Vaca reported that in , when the Spanish landed in Texas, "half the natives died from a disease of the bowels and blamed us. The first epidemic was recorded in and killed the emperor Huayna Capac , the father of Atahualpa. Further epidemics of smallpox broke out in , , and , as well as typhus in , influenza in , diphtheria in and measles in Recently developed tree-ring evidence shows that the illness which reduced the population in Aztec Mexico was aided by a great drought in the 16th century, and which continued through the arrival of the Spanish conquest.

The cocoliztli epidemic from to killed an estimated, additional 2 to 2. The American researcher H.

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The conquistadors found new animal species, but reports confused these with monsters such as giants, dragons, or ghosts. An early motive for exploration was the search for Cipango, the place where gold was born. Cathay and Cibao were later goals. Books such as The Travels of Marco Polo fuelled rumours of mythical places. In , Francisco de Orellana reached the Amazon River , naming it after a tribe of warlike women he claimed to have fought there.

Others claimed that the similarity between "Indio" and "Iudio", the word for Jew in Spanish language about , revealed the indigenous peoples' origin. Sir Walter Raleigh and some Italian, Spanish, Dutch, French and Portuguese expeditions were looking for the wonderful Guiana empire that gave its name to the present day countries of the Guianas.

Several expeditions went in search of these fabulous places, but returned empty-handed, or brought less gold than they had hoped. They discovered new routes, ocean currents , trade winds , crops, spices and other products. In the sail era knowledge of winds and currents was essential, for example, the Agulhas current long prevented Portuguese sailors from reaching India. Various places in Africa and the Americas have been named after the imagined cities made of gold, rivers of gold and precious stones.

Marching westward in to find the land of the "White King", he was the first European to cross South America from the East. He discovered a great waterfall [ clarification needed ] and the Chaco Plain. He managed to penetrate the outer defences of the Inca Empire on the hills of the Andes , in present-day Bolivia , the first European to do so, eight years before Francisco Pizarro. Garcia looted a booty of silver. The Spanish discovery of what they thought at that time was India, and the constant competition of Portugal and Spain led to a desire for secrecy about every trade route and every colony.

As a consequence, many documents that could reach other European countries included fake dates and faked facts, to mislead any other nation's possible efforts. For example, the Island of California refers to a famous cartographic error propagated on many maps during the 17th and 18th centuries, despite contradictory evidence from various explorers. The legend was initially infused with the idea that California was a terrestrial paradise, peopled by black women Amazons.

The tendency to secrecy and falsification of dates casts doubts about the authenticity of many primary sources. Several historians have hypothesized that John II may have known of the existence of Brazil and North America as early as , thus explaining his wish in at the signing of the Treaty of Tordesillas , to push the line of influence further west.

Many historians suspect that the real documents [ clarification needed ] would have been placed in the Library of Lisbon. Unfortunately, a fire following the Lisbon earthquake destroyed nearly all of the library's records, but an extra copy [ clarification needed ] available in Goa was transferred to Lisbon's Tower of Tombo, during the following years. Ferdinand incorporated the American territories into his domain and then withdrew the authority granted to governor Christopher Columbus and the first conquistadors. He established direct royal control with the Council of the Indies , the most important administrative organ of the Spanish Empire , both in the Americas and in Asia.

After unifying Castile, Ferdinand introduced to Castile many laws, regulations and institutions such as the Inquisition , that were typical in Aragon. These laws were later used in the new lands. The Laws of Burgos , created in —, were the first codified set of laws governing the behavior of settlers in Spanish colonial America, particularly with regards to Native Americans. They forbade the maltreatment of indigenous people, and endorsed their conversion to Catholicism.

Emperor Charles V was already using the term " Council of the Indies " in The Crown reserved for itself important tools of intervention. The "capitulacion" clearly stated that the conquered territories belonged to the Crown, not to the individual. On the other hand, concessions allowed the Crown to guide the Companies conquests to certain territories, depending on their interests. In addition, the leader of the expedition received clear instructions about their duties towards the army, the native population, the type of military action. A written report about the results was mandatory.

The army had a royal official, the "veedor". The "veedor" or notary, ensured they complied with orders and instructions and preserved the King's share of the booty. Armed groups sought supplies and funds in various ways. Financing was requested from the King, delegates of the Crown, the nobility, rich merchants or the troops themselves. The more professional campaigns were funded by the Crown. Campaigns were sometimes initiated by inexperienced governors, because in Spanish Colonial America , offices were bought or handed to relatives or cronies.

Sometimes, an expedition of conquistadors were a group of influential men who had recruited and equipped their fighters, by promising a share of the booty. The conquistador borrowed as little as possible, preferring to invest all their belongings. Sometimes, every soldier brought his own equipment and supplies, other times the soldiers received gear as an advance from the conquistador. Sponsors included governments, the king, viceroys, and local governors backed by rich men. The contribution of each individual conditioned the subsequent division of the booty, receiving a portion the pawn lancero, piquero, alabardero, rodelero and twice a man on horseback caballero owner of a horse.

Even the dogs, important weapons of war in their own right, were in some cases rewarded. The division of the booty produced conflicts, such as the one between Pizarro and Almagro. Conquistadors had overwhelming military advantages over the native peoples. They belonged to a more militarily advanced civilization with better techniques, tools, firearms, artillery, iron, steel and domesticated animals. Horses and mules carried them, pigs fed them and dogs fought for them.

The indigenous peoples had the advantage of established settlements, determination to remain independent and large numerical superiority. European diseases and divide and conquer tactics contributed to the defeat of the native populations. In the Iberian peninsula, in a situation of constant conflict, warfare and daily life were strongly interlinked.

Small, lightly equipped armies were maintained at all times. The state of war continued intermittently for centuries and created a very warlike culture in Iberia. Another factor was the ability of the conquistadors to manipulate the political situation between indigenous peoples. To beat the Inca civilization, they supported one side of a civil war. They overthrew the Aztec civilization by allying with natives who had been subjugated by more powerful neighbouring tribes and kingdoms.

These tactics had been used since antiquity, for example, in the Granada War , the conquest of the Canary Islands and conquest of Navarre. The Europeans practiced war within the terms and laws of their concept of a just war. While Spanish soldiers went to the battlefield to kill their enemies, the Aztecs and Mayas captured their enemies for use as sacrificial victims to their gods—a process called " flower war " by Spanish historians. In traditional cultures of the Stone Age , Bronze Age , and hunter-gatherer societies the warfare was mostly 'endemic', long duration, low intensity, usually evolving into almost a ritualized form.

By contrast, Europe had moved to 'sporadic' warfare in the Middle Ages due to the availability of professionally mercenary armies. Aztec and other native peoples practiced an endemic system of warfare as well, and so were easily defeated by Spanish and Portuguese sporadic-warfare armies in the early s. These forces were capable of quickly moving long distances, allowing a quick return home after battle. Wars were mainly between clans, expelling intruders. On land, these wars combined some European methods with techniques from Muslim bandits in Al-Andalus.

These tactics consisted of small groups who attempted to catch their opponents by surprise, through an ambush. In Mombasa , Dom Vasco da Gama resorted to piracy , looting Arab merchant ships, which were generally unarmed trading vessels without heavy cannons. European conquistadors in the Americas made extensive use of crossbows , with firearms becoming widespread only from the s.

Animals were another important factor for Spanish triumph. On the one hand, the introduction of the horse and other domesticated pack animals allowed them greater mobility unknown to the Indian cultures. However, in the mountains and jungles, the Spaniards were less able to use narrow Amerindian roads and bridges made for pedestrian traffic, which were sometimes no wider than a few feet. In places such as Argentina , New Mexico and California , the indigenous people learned horsemanship, cattle raising, and sheep herding.

The use of the new techniques by indigenous groups later became a disputed factor in native resistance to the colonial and American governments. The Spaniards were also skilled at breeding dogs for war, hunting and protection. The Molossers , Spanish war dogs [] and sheep dogs they used in battle were effective as a psychological weapon against the natives, who, in many cases, had never seen domesticated dogs.

These specially trained dogs were feared because of their strength and ferocity. The strongest big breeds of broad-mouthed dogs were specifically trained for battle. These war dogs were used against barely clothed troops. They were armoured dogs trained to kill and disembowel. The successive expeditions and experience of the Portuguese pilots led to a rapid evolution of Portuguese nautical science. In the thirteenth century they were guided by the sun position. For celestial navigation like other Europeans, they used Greek tools, like the astrolabe and quadrant , which they made easier and simpler.

They also created the cross-staff , or cane of Jacob , for measuring at sea the height of the sun and other stars. The results varied throughout the year, which required corrections. To address this the Portuguese used the astronomical tables Ephemeris , a precious tool for oceanic navigation, which spread widely in the fifteenth century. These tables revolutionized navigation, enabling latitude calculations. The tables of the Almanach Perpetuum , by astronomer Abraham Zacuto , published in Leiria in , were used along with its improved astrolabe, by Vasco da Gama and Pedro Alvares Cabral.

The ship that truly launched the first phase of the discoveries along the African coast was the Portuguese caravel. Iberians quickly adopted it for their merchant navy. It was a development based on African fishing boats. They were agile and easier to navigate, with a tonnage of 50 to tons and one to three masts, with lateen triangular sails allowing luffing. The caravel particularly benefited from a greater capacity to tack. The limited capacity for cargo and crew were their main drawbacks, but have not hindered its success.

Limited crew and cargo space was acceptable, initially, because as exploratory ships, their "cargo" was what was in the explorer's discoveries about a new territory, which only took up the space of one person. Columbus also used them in his travels. Long oceanic voyages led to larger ships. Due to the piracy that plagued the coasts, they began to be used in the navy and were provided with cannon windows, which led to the classification of "naus" according to the power of its artillery. The carrack or nau was a three- or four- masted ship.

It had a high rounded stern with large aftcastle , forecastle and bowsprit at the stem. It was first used by the Portuguese, and later by the Spanish. They were also adapted to the increasing maritime trade. They grew from tons capacity in the 15th century to In the 16th century they usually had two decks , stern castles fore and aft, two to four masts with overlapping sails.

In India travels in the sixteenth century used carracks, large merchant ships with a high edge and three masts with square sails, that reached 2, tons. Besides coastal exploration, Portuguese ships also made trips further out to gather meteorological and oceanographic information. The knowledge of wind patterns and currents , the trade winds and the oceanic gyres in the Atlantic, and the determination of latitude led to the discovery of the best ocean route back from Africa: crossing the Central Atlantic to the Azores, using the winds and currents that spin clockwise in the Northern Hemisphere because of atmospheric circulation and the effect of Coriolis , facilitating the way to Lisbon and thus enabling the Portuguese to venture farther from shore, a manoeuvre that became known as the "volta do mar" return of the sea.

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In , the application of this principle in the Pacific Ocean led the Spanish discovering the Manila Galleon trade route. In Angelino Dulcert of Majorca produced the portolan chart map. Evidently drawing from the information provided in by Lanceloto Malocello sponsored by King Dinis of Portugal. It showed Lanzarote island, named Insula de Lanzarotus Marocelus and marked by a Genoese shield, as well as the island of Forte Vetura Fuerteventura and Vegi Mari Lobos , although Dulcert also included some imaginary islands himself, notably Saint Brendan's Island , and three islands he names Primaria , Capraria and Canaria.

Mestre Jacome was a Majorcan cartographer induced by Portuguese prince Henry the Navigator to move to Portugal in the s to train Portuguese map-makers in Majorcan-style cartography. Majorca had many skilled Jewish cartographers. Reinel was also author of the first nautical chart known with an indication of latitudes in and the first representation of a wind rose. They were considered the best cartographers of their time. Emperor Charles V wanted them to work for him. In King Manuel I of Portugal handed Lopo Homem a charter giving him the privilege to certify and amend all compass needles in vessels.

The third phase of nautical cartography was characterized by the abandonment of Ptolemy 's representation of the East and more accuracy in the representation of lands and continents. Many of his charts are large scale. The Manila-Acapulco trade route started in and Spanish treasure fleets white and its eastwards rivals, the Portuguese India Armadas routes of — blue. North America. South America.

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